Crystals of Zn2+/Mn2+ yeast enolase with the inhibitor PhAH (phosphonoacetohydroxamate) were grown under conditions with a slight preference for binding of Zn2+ at the higher affinity site, site I. The structure of the Zn2+/Mn2+-PhAH complex was solved at a resolution of 1.54 A, and the two catalytic metal binding sites, I and II, show only subtle displacement compared to that of the corresponding complex with the native Mg2+ ions. Low-temperature echo-detected high-field (W-band, 95 GHz) EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) and 1H ENDOR (electron-nuclear double resonance) were carried out on a single crystal, and rotation patterns were acquired in two perpendicular planes. Analysis of the rotation patterns resolved a total of six Mn2+ sites, four symmetry-related sites of one type and two out of the four of the other type. The observation of two chemically inequivalent Mn2+ sites shows that Mn2+ ions populate both sites I and II and the zero-field splitting (ZFS) tensors of the Mn2+ in the two sites were determined. The Mn2+ site with the larger D value was assigned to site I based on the 1H ENDOR spectra, which identified the relevant water ligands. This assignment is consistent with the seemingly larger deviation of site I from octahedral symmetry, compared to that of site II. The ENDOR results gave the coordinates of the protons of two water ligands, and adding them to the crystal structure revealed their involvement in a network of H bonds stabilizing the binding of the metal ions and PhAH. Although specific hyperfine interactions with the inhibitor were not determined, the spectroscopic properties of the Mn2+ in the two sites were consistent with the crystal structure. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations carried out on a cluster representing the catalytic site, with Mn2+ in site I and Zn2+ in site II, and vice versa, gave overestimated D values on the order of the experimental ones, although the larger D value was found for Mn2+ in site II rather than in site I. This discrepancy was attributed to the high sensitivity of the ZFS parameters to the Mn-O bond lengths and orientations, such that small, but significant, differences between the optimized and crystal structures alter the ZFS considerably, well above the difference between the two sites. << Less
J Am Chem Soc 129:4240-4252(2007) [PubMed] [EuropePMC]
Sims P.A., Larsen T.M., Poyner R.R., Cleland W.W., Reed G.H.
The pH dependence of enolase catalysis was studied to understand how enolase is able to utilize both general acid and general base catalysis in each direction of the reaction at near-neutral pHs. Wild-type enolase from yeast was assayed in the dehydration reaction (2-phospho-D-glycerate --> phosph ... >> More
The pH dependence of enolase catalysis was studied to understand how enolase is able to utilize both general acid and general base catalysis in each direction of the reaction at near-neutral pHs. Wild-type enolase from yeast was assayed in the dehydration reaction (2-phospho-D-glycerate --> phosphoenolpyruvate + H(2)O) at different pHs. E211Q, a site-specific variant of enolase that catalyzes the exchange of the alpha-proton of 2-phospho-D-glycerate but not the complete dehydration, was assayed in a (1)H/(2)H exchange reaction at different pDs. Additionally, crystal structures of E211Q and E168Q were obtained at 2.0 and 1.8 A resolution, respectively. Analysis of the pH profile of k(cat)/K(Mg) for wild-type enolase yielded macroscopic pK(a) estimates of 7.4 +/- 0.3 and 9.0 +/-0.3, while the results of the pD profile of the exchange reaction of E211Q led to a pK(a) estimate of 9.5 +/-0.1. These values permit estimates of the four microscopic pK(a)s that describe the four relevant protonation states of the acid/base catalytic groups in the active site. The analysis indicates that the dehydration reaction is catalyzed by a small fraction of enzyme that is reverse-protonated (i.e., Lys345-NH(2), Glu211-COOH), whereas the hydration reaction is catalyzed by a larger fraction of the enzyme that is typically protonated (i.e., Lys345-NH(3)(+), Glu211-COO(-)). These two forms of the enzyme coexist in a constant, pH-independent ratio. The structures of E211Q and E168Q both show virtually identical folds and active-site architectures (as compared to wild-type enolase) and thus provide additional support to the conclusions reported herein. Other enzymes that require both general acid and general base catalysis likely require reverse protonation of catalytic groups in one direction of the reaction. << Less
Biochemistry 42:8298-8306(2003) [PubMed] [EuropePMC]
HOLT A., WOLD F.
J Biol Chem 236:3227-3231(1961) [PubMed] [EuropePMC]
Schurig H., Rutkat K., Rachel R., Jaenicke R.
Enolase (2-phospho-D-glycerate hydrolase; EC 126.96.36.199) from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima was purified to homogeneity. The N-terminal 25 amino acids of the enzyme reveal a high degree of similarity to enolases from other sources. As shown by sedimentation analysis and gel-per ... >> More
Enolase (2-phospho-D-glycerate hydrolase; EC 188.8.131.52) from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima was purified to homogeneity. The N-terminal 25 amino acids of the enzyme reveal a high degree of similarity to enolases from other sources. As shown by sedimentation analysis and gel-permeation chromatography, the enzyme is a 345-kDa homoctamer with a subunit molecular mass of 48 +/-5 kDa. Electron microscopy and image processing yield ring-shaped particles with a diameter of 17 nm and fourfold symmetry. Averaging of the aligned particles proves the enzyme to be a tetramer of dimers. The enzyme requires divalent cations in the activity assay, Mg2+ being most effective. The optimum temperature for catalysis is 90 degrees C, the temperature dependence yields a nonlinear Arrhenius profile with limiting activation energies of 75 kJ mol-1 and 43 kJ mol-1 at temperatures below and above 45 degrees C. The pH optimum of the enzyme lies between 7 and 8. The apparent Km values for 2-phospho-D-glycerate and Mg2+ at 75 degrees C are 0.07 mM and 0.03 mM; with increasing temperature, they are decreased by factors 2 and 30, respectively. Fluoride and phosphate cause competitive inhibition with a Ki of 0.14 mM. The enzyme shows high intrinsic thermal stability, with a thermal transition at 90 and 94 degrees C in the absence and in the presence of Mg2+. << Less
Protein Sci. 4:228-236(1995) [PubMed] [EuropePMC]
Poyner R.R., Laughlin L.T., Sowa G.A., Reed G.H.
High-resolution crystallographic data show that Glu 168 and Glu 211 lie on opposite surfaces of the active site from Lys 345. Two different proposals for general base catalysis have emerged from these structural studies. In one scheme, the carboxylate side chains of Glu 168 and Glu 211 are propose ... >> More
High-resolution crystallographic data show that Glu 168 and Glu 211 lie on opposite surfaces of the active site from Lys 345. Two different proposals for general base catalysis have emerged from these structural studies. In one scheme, the carboxylate side chains of Glu 168 and Glu 211 are proposed to ionize a trapped water molecule and the OH-serves as the base [Lebioda, L., & Stec, B. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 2817-2822]. In the other proposal, the epsilon-amino group of Lys 345 functions in general base catalysis [Wedekind, J. E., Poyner, R. R., Reed, G. H., & Rayment, I. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 9333-9342]. Genes encoding site specific mutations of these active site residues of yeast enolase, K345A, E168Q, and E211Q, have been prepared. The respective protein products of the wild type and mutant genes were expressed in Escherichia coli and isolated in homogeneous form. All three mutant proteins possess severely depressed activities in the overall reaction-< 1 part in 10(5) of wild type activity. Properties of the three mutant proteins in partial reactions were examined to define more clearly the roles of these residues in the catalytic cycle. The K345A variant fails to catalyze the exchange of the C-2 proton of 2-phospho-D-glycerate with deuterium in D2O, whereas both the E211Q and E168Q mutant proteins are functional in this partial reaction. For E211Q and E168Q enolases, exchange is essentially complete prior to appearance of product, and this observation provides further support for an intermediate in the normal reaction. K345A enolase is inactive in the ionization of tartronate semialdehyde phosphate (TSP), whereas both E168Q and E211Q proteins alter the tautomeric state or catalyze ionization of bound TSP. Wild type enolase catalyzes hydrolysis of (Z)-3-chloro-2-phosphoenolpyruvate by addition of OH- and elimination of Cl-at C-3. This reaction mimics the addition of OH-to C-3 of phosphoenolpyruvate in the reverse reaction with the normal product. All three mutant proteins are depressed in their abilities to carry out this reaction. In single-turnover assays, the activities vary in the order K345A > E168Q >> E211Q. These results suggest that Lys 345 functions as the base in the ionization of 2-PGA and that Glu 211 participates in the second step of the reaction. << Less
Biochemistry 35:1692-1699(1996) [PubMed] [EuropePMC]